How To

How does a rifle scope work

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The functions and criteria of the  
rifle scopes:
  • Increase the target
  • Estimation of the distance
  • Improved seeing in twilight
  • Simplification when aiming
  • quality features
  • parallax
  • Centered reticle
  • Tube diameter
  • With or without rail
  • Assembly and insertion



In technology, rifle scopes differ by magnification:
fixed magnification e.g., 6×42, 8×56
  • Magnification cannot be changed
  • Advantages:  
    lighter and more cost-effective
  • Disadvantage:  
    Magnification and field of view cannot be adapted to different hunting conditions.

Variable magnification eg  
1.5 – 6 x 42 
2.5 – 10 x 48 
   3 – 12 x 56
  • Magnification can be changed 
    High magnification for long distances  
    or in the twilight 
    Small magnification for short distances  
    or for a large field of view
  • Advantage:  
    Magnification and field of view can be adapted to different hunting conditions.
  • Disadvantage:  
    slightly higher weight, higher price
Best Long Range Rifle Scope Review
Variable- magnification variable- speed telescopes differ in their design:
Reticle in the lens image plane 

The standard for the USA rifle scopes

The reticle changes with a different magnification. 
The reticle can be used to easily estimate the distance since the relation between reticle and target always remains constant
No risk of the change of the meeting point by changing the magnification

As the reticle also increases, the bars become thicker with increasing magnification.

Reticle in the eyepiece image planeis also referred to as the second image planeThe reticle does not change when a different magnification is set.Advantage 
As the magnification increases, the coverage dimension in the target becomes smaller. That is, fine threads remain fine. From the age of is especially recommended for windshields that only shoot in bright daylight
The reticle can no longer be used for easy estimation of the distance.



How does the aim telescope help with seeing at dusk?
Magnification and lens diameterThe same applies to the binoculars. 
High magnification (7-12 fold) combined with a  lens diameter of around 50 millimeters allows for a high twilight rate.
If also, the light transmittance is 90% or higher, the target range can be addressed and targeted very well in poor light conditions.
Illuminated reticleIlluminated screens can be connected at dusk. The center of the reticle is illuminated by a step less dimmer. This enables the precise agreement.Illuminated screens are available in different designs, as a point, crosshair or arrow, with or without a target ring.



Why does a rifle scope simplify the goal?
The human eye can only focus on one point at a time.During the target, the eye always focuses quickly between the rear sight, the grain, and the target.

This ability of the eye is called to be able to adapt rapidly to points at different distances.

From the age of about 30 years, the eye can no longer adjust to different distances in succession

The accommodation speed drops. This makes the targeting of the rear sight and the grain problematic.Objective poles bring reticle and target to a level. 

On this one level, the eye can focus without problems.

The shooter can concentrate fully on the target.

The quality features
When you compare rifle scopes with each other, you can evaluate the following criteria, 
  • Brightness, and brilliance
  • Color and contrast
  • Resolution and facial field
  • Feather
For the other features, you must rely on the manufacturer’s testimony, check the tests, trust the vendor, or make the experience during the use of the glass:
  • tightness
  • robust surface
  • shock resistance
  • compensation



Parallax is the apparent displacement of the reticle in the image plane as the eye moves back and forth through a rifle scope.If one always sees in the middle of the exit pupil through the rifle scope, one avoids parallax errors and thus possible defeats.Parallax-free, one can only adjust a rifle scope to a certain distance.Without further details, most rifle scopes are set at the usual distance of 100 meters without parallax.

Centered reticle
If the stopping point deviates from the meeting point, you can make small corrections yourself by adjusting the reticle. In almost all rifle scopes, this happens in the “turrets” on the center pipe with the so-called click adjustment. How many mm of a “click” is 100 m can be found in the corresponding operating instructions?In the case of a rifle scope with a centered reticle, the reticle remains optically in the center of the image, even if it has been adjusted according to height and side.

Tube diameter 
The center tube diameter does not affect the quality of a rifle scope.In the case of fixed-magnification lenses, a median tube diameter of 26 mm has been established in the USA, whereas in America it is 1 inch (= 25.4 mm).Variable target spacers require a little more space because of the structural differences. Therefore, its center tube diameter is usually 30 mm thick. There are, however, also bench residual distance tubes with even higher diameters such as 34 mm, for example, to achieve a larger adjustment range in height.



With or without a rail? 
This is a question of assembly.Which mount fits to which weapon, knows, in any case, a good gunsmith.

No rail is required for ring mounting. A combination of rail and ring mounting is also possible with rifle scopes that have a rail only on the center pipe.

Modern mounting systems, such as the Blaser saddle mounting, exclusively use this center pipe for fastening. (Eg VM, LM, ZM) In contrast to the rifle scopes without a rail (e.g., V, L, Z). The often more favorable price of the rifle scopes without a rail is usually offset by the higher price of the assembly part.



Assembly and insertion 
As a rule of thumb one can remember: 
as low as possible.
The combination of a weapon with rifle scope is mainly determined by the precise assembly. The rifleman fits these individually to the rifleman. The correct eye distance should be about 80 mm depending on the manufacturer because of the shotgun shot.For large caliber safari calibers one chooses the magnum distance of 90 mm. For the hunt was not to end with gaps in the eyebrows.
When shooting, the gunmaker adjusts the target barrel to the weapon. In doing so, the center point of the reticle and the meeting point position of the cartridge used are coordinated with one another. Minor corrections are made by adjusting the reticle. Larger corrections are made directly at the assembly.

If the ammunition or the batch (same ammunition, but from another production process) are changed, the meeting point may change. A controlled shot before hunting is therefore urgently required.


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